All About ASAP, FYI and FYA

ONE day, a collegeague turned to me and asked, "What's FYI?"

"For your information."

"What's FYA?"

"For your action."

"What's WRT? "

"With reference to …"

Before the conversation dragged on any further, I quickly looked up a website on acronyms used in business communications and sent it to him via e-mail.

This conversation made me realize that the full meaning of many acronyms and abbreviations may not be immediately obvious for many people – students or working adults alike.

For starters, an acronym is a word created from combining the initial letters of each word. For example, For your action.

An abbreviation is a word shortened from its original form. For example, "Attn." is an abbreviation of the word "attention" to convey the meaning "for the attention of".

In general, a full stop is used for abbreviations where the last letter of the word and the abbreviation are not the same. For example, "Co." (Company) needs a full stop but "Ltd" (Limited) does not. Acronyms do not need punctuation marks.

Below are some frequently used short forms in business communication like e-mails, faxes and letters:

aka . – also known as

On Monday morning, Kay El, aka The Boss, walked in happily and blessed her assistant, Pee Jay.

approx. – approx

Checking her e-mail, Pee Jay read, "Today is the boss's birthday. Can everyone please slip off quietly to the cafeteria in approx. 15 minutes?"

ASAP – as soon as possible

Pee Jay opened up her daily planner and scribbled ASAP next to some of the urgent items on her to-do list.

Attn . – for the attention of

Leafing through the stack of mail to be sent out, Pee Jay asked her boss, "To what should I address the cheque for the annual report?"

Her boss replied, "Just write 'Attn: Ms. Christine Jalleh." She'll know what to do with it. "

Bcc . – blind carbon copy or blind copy to. In this case, the carbon copy is sent to an e-mail recipient which e-mail address is not visible to the cc or other bcc recipients.

"By the way, I think it's better if you bcc me in your e-mail to Brown. We would not want him thinking that I'm supervising you for this project."

Cc . – carbon copy, or copy to

"But I would like to be cc-ed on the e-mail to Mr Green as I have not yet introduced the two of you to each other."

c / o – in care of, used when sending a document to A who will receive it on B's because because B is away from the office.

"Boss, I think Christine is back in China this week. Would it be all right if I sent the cheque in care of her assistant? I'll still write her name on top with c / o Ah Sis Tern below."

COD – cash on delivery, where a person makes payment for an item purchase after it has been delivered.

"I'm also sending out the cheque for the set of Business English reference books we bought COD on eBay."

eg . – exempli gratia (for example)

Pee Jay replied to the e-mail, "Hi everyone. Please remember that the boss does not like surprises, eg everyone shouting 'Surprise!' in the cafeteria. "

et al. – et alii (and others). Usually used to list co-authors after the lead author in a bibliography, this form is now commonly used to address the other people other than the recipient in e-mails.

She received a new e-mail, which read, "Dear Pee Jay et al., I was reminded that the boss does NOT like surprises …"

etc. – et cetera (and so on OR and so forth)

This means that we will not be able to collectively surprise her by springing out of the cafeteria doors as we had planned, etc.

exc. – except

"Can everyone, exc. Pee Jay, be at the cafeteria in 5 minutes? We need to figure out a surprise without the surprise element.

FYI – for your information

Her boss's voice bought the young assistant back to the present, "Pee Jay, I'm forwarding you all these e-mails FYI, okay?"

FYA – for your action

"Note that some of these e-mails are FYA …"

ie . – id est (that is)

After acknowledging her supervisor, Pee Jay decided to help her collections out and typed, "She's in a good mood today, ie we will be a new account and completed a major project."

K – thousand, eg 450K = 450,000

"Just to give you an idea of ​​her mood, it's a 450K retainer for the first quarter …"

PA – personal assistant

The immediate reply to Pee Jay's e-mail read, "Thanks for the info, Pee Jay – you're the best PA!"

pa – per annual (per year)

Pee Jay smiled and responded, "Haha, there is a reason why I'm paid RM65K pa"

pp – per pro (used when signing a document on someone's behalf)

Looking back at her paperwork, Pee Jay signed some invoices on her boss's behalf, inserting pp just before her signature.

Pto. – please turn over, used at the end of a page to indicate that there is a continuity to the text.

"By the way, please remember to type Pto. On the first page of the proposal you're sending.

viz . – videlicet, namely

She got up and left a note on Pee Jay's work station before leaving. Scribbled on it was, "Can I pass you my slice of birthday cake after I cut it? I really do not need a lot of carbo, viz. Refined flour, at my age." The note ended with a wink.

Readers can go to http://www.acronymfinder.com/ to search for the meanings of over 4 million acronyms and abbreviations. This online dictionary also allows users to filter their search according to categories like information technology (IT), military and government, business and finance, science and medicine, organizations and schools, and slang and pop culture.

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Novel Netware Network Operating System

This is an operating system that has the capabilities of supporting information and resources sharing between network computers. It provides an influence between workstation in a network.

Network Operating System Services includes:

File and resource sharing – Is the fundamental requirement for a network ie is the reason behind networking computers.

Configurability and usability – configuration and use should be easy paper documentation, electronic format, books should be provided for a first time user to get the network up and running.

Support – any kind of useful information should always be available.

Types of Network Operating System:

Novel Netware
• It is the first NOS to support the multiple platforms
• It was the first NOS to support multiple and varying topologies and routines between this different topologies
• Novel Netware servers typically outperform other network servers because it is by design network operating system

Features of Novel NOS include:

• Novel directory services (NOS)

NDS offering is what makes a novel a strong competitor of Windows NT. It uses X.500 standard and therefore prevent the creation of duplicate objects. Each object has a distinguish name (DN). Because NDS directory services is displayed in neat graphically arranged order, objects such as users, printers, workstations and application servers are sharing an organization structure to the system administration user. You can log in as the administrator user from any workstation. This enables you to manage the entire directory tree. You can add and remove user's services and other network resources. Users need to log only once in order to gain access to all network resources.

• Security Services

All passwords flows back and forth from the Netware server to the client workstation in an encrypted format, even the administrator can not look at user's password on the server. The administrator can remove and add users permission but only the users know their own password, even if users get to physical Netware server, they have no greater access to resources that would have on their own workstation is build into the network system because Netware security is build into the Netware system of the lowest level. All attempts to access information or resources on the network go through on the network security system.

• Database services

Provide a central repository for information on the server, the major database management system available is
Netware C – a database record management system index with a database key for easy development for vertical application.

Netware SQL – standard used for accessing records stored in relational database system.
Oracle DBMS – it is SQL based system used primarily business critical application in different lines of business.

• Messaging services

Provide a messaging service called Netware message handling service. This provides ease of message, transmission between many fronted applications. This application can share data over the LANs and Novel word.

• Print services

Allows up to 16 printers to be shared per print server on the Network and therefore a real flexibility of printing, Printers need not to be attached to the actual print server in order to be operated.

• Netware loadable machine (NLM)

Netware loadable modules are maintained by Novel Netware operation. It provide the power needed to support hierarchy used network services in the server. have the same access to the Netware security services making them same to control and monitor.

Advantages of the Novel Netware
Has the print and file server software in the business and its sharing of files and printers that makes a network important and useful. Has the best LAN NOS directory service.

Disadvantages
As an application server its failures as Windows NT beats it on this case. Poor at printing data / information network status and management. It has build in network management tools that are not powerful.

The Best ITEC Anatomy and Physiology Questions

ITEC Anatomy and Physiology is broken down into 12 body systems. These are as follows:

The Cell
The Skin
Skeletal System
Muscular System
Cardiovascular System
Lymphatic System
Nervous System
Endocrine System
Reproductive System
Respiratory System
Digestive System
Urinary System

For anyone looking to enter the complementary or beauty field, having an accredited Anatomy and Physiology qualification is vital.

There is so much information to learn with this subject, you have to memorise a lot of terms including muscle name, bones, glands, disease and disorders. As a result it is very important that you have Anatomy and Physiology questions to test your knowledge throughout your studies.

An example of some sample questions are:

1. Which hormone does the adrenal medulla secrete?
a) Glucocorticoids
b) Adrenaline – Answer
c) Insulin
d) Testosterone

2. Which part of the brain is the relay station?
a) The cerebrum
b) The medulla oblongata
c) The midbrain – Answer
d) The pons varolii

3. Where does fertilization take place in the female reproductive system?
a) Uterus
b) Fallopian tubes – Answer
c) Uterus
d) Ovaries

4. What is the function of the pleural cavity?
a) To prevent friction between the layers of the lungs – Answer
b) To exchange gases between the layers of the lungs
c) To prevent a backflow of air between the layers of the lungs
d) To moisten the layers of the lungs

5. What is the function of antidiuretic hormone?
a) Stimulates basic metabolic rate
b) Increases water reabsorption in kidneys – Answer
c) Maintains calcium levels in bones
d) Contracts the uterus during labour

The best ITEC Anatomy and Physiology questions are in multiple choice format. I recommend that you break down each body system and learn one at a time. Write out your revision questions, preferably about 20 per day, memorize these and then test yourself at the end of each week. Once you learn one body system, move onto the next and so on. The key is to be consistent. You will be amazed at how much knowledge you gain learning this way.

The History of the Tracfone Company

Tracfone, which is now one of the top 10 cellular providers in the US [as well as Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands], has had an interesting history, as companies go. The company first made their mark in 1996, under the name Topp Telecom, Inc. Within a few years, they found themselves being supported by Mexican company Telmex, who bought a controlling interest [55%] in the company. By 2000, the company was split from Telmex, and began to grow exponentially, after taking on the name Tracfone. The company expanded its market share and began to bring in more business as the days went by.

Tracfone is now one of the biggest prepaid wireless companies in the United States. Because they enable users to buy prepaid minutes on a wide variety of phones [including hot brands such as LG, Motorola, Nokia, and Kyocera] they have become an excellent option for people who do not want to deal with the hassles of credit checks and long-term contracts with phone companies. This accounts for much of Tracfone’s success.

Unlike some prepaid cellular services – especially those in the past – Tracfone enables people to use some of the most popular phones and have all the options that a cell phone user with a standard-issue binding contract would have. As such, the company has built its stellar reputation on this. Nobody wants an inferior phone simply because they chose to use pre-paid services rather than be tied to a contract for anywhere from 12-24 months – or more.

In addition to being popular in the United States market, Tracfone dominates Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Further, they are the most popular cellular provider in Latin America. With nearly 10 million customers and an always-growing, eager customer base, it is no surprise that the company has enjoyed so much success and continues to grow every year.

Tracfone actually provides two services – Tracfone and Net10. The two services are provided by the same company, with the same quality, though Net10 only offers GSM and CDMA services as of now. The company is expanding both of these services, as well as their TDMA service, despite most customers migrating to the former two.

Depending on the service that a Tracfone user chooses, as well as the specific phone they purchase, there are different deals that can be obtained by Tracfone customers. Some people who buy a plan with Tracfone will enjoy free text messaging, while others will pay a few cents per text. It is important to look at the fine details and choose a phone and plan that will work best for your needs. If you frequently text people, those few cents per text could add up, and it would be in your best interest to invest in a phone that enables you to text for free.

As you can see, Tracfone is a company that many people have come to rely on, and it is also a company with flexible options. It is the perfect choice for someone who wants a cell phone, but isn’t ready to commit a huge amount of money or time to a specific company, as Tracfone’s pre-paid plans do not require a contract. People can buy minutes for the phone based on both days of service as well as increments of time. This flexibility allows people to choose what sort of plan will best suit them and their specific needs as a customer. This is definitely part of what attracts people to Tracfone, and why the company has so many loyal customers. Their innovative way of dealing with cellular users by giving them many options is an excellent way for them to continue to grow and profit as a company.